Volume 40, May 2005ECORAD 2004
|Page(s)||S129 - S134|
|Published online||17 June 2005|
Transfer factors of radionuclides and stable elements from soil to rice and wheat
Office of Biospheric Assessment for Waste Disposal, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555, Japan
2 Tokyo Nuclear Services Co., Ltd., Ueno 7-2-7, Taitou-ku, Tokyo 110-0005, Japan
3 National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604, Japan
It is important to obtain local transfer factors (TFs) of long-lived radionuclides for assessment of radioactive waste disposal, because climates, soil types and vegetation can affect TFs. Global fallout 90Sr and 137Cs are good tracers to obtain the TFs under natural conditions, however, their radioactivity levels in plants are extremely low. To close the gap, analyses of stable isotopes and natural radioisotopes in rice and wheat grains and their associated soils collected throughout Japan were carried out in order to obtain TFs under equilibrium conditions. We focused on rice and wheat, because the consumption of cereals is very high in Japan and other Asian countries. About 40-50 elements such as Cs, Sr, Th and U in plant and soil samples were measured by ICP-MS and ICP-OES. From the data, TFs of stable elements were calculated; among the values, TFs of Cs and Sr for rice and wheat were compared with the TFs of 137Cs and 90Sr. Using the elements' concentrations data, we proposed a `Reference rice' (brown rice and polished rice) and a `Reference paddy soil' to provide elemental composition data which can serve as reference values in mathematical transfer models and which allows the comparison of data for other crops.
© EDP Sciences, 2005
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