Volume 40, May 2005ECORAD 2004
|Page(s)||S753 - S758|
|Published online||17 June 2005|
Chemical and mineralogical characterization of waste generated in the petroleum industry and its correlation with 226Ra and 228Ra contents
Universidade Católica de Pernambuco, Departamento de Química, Rua do Príncipe 596, 50050-900 Recife, Brasil, e-mail: email@example.com
2 Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Departamento de Energia Nuclear, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire 1000, 50740-540 Recife, Brasil
3 Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria, Comissäo Nacional de Energia Nuclear, Caixa Postal 37750, Barra da Tijuca, 22643-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil
Scales and sludge are commonly formed during oil and gas extracting and processing operations. They usually appear when injection and formation water with different chemical characteristics come into contact. When the produced water is brought to the surface alongside with the oil, a precipitate can be deposited on the walls of pipes and equipment, forming the so-called scales. Otherwise they can accumulate in the form of sludge on the bottom of storage tanks, separators, and other equipment. Radium is the main radionuclide brought to the surface with oil and produced water and it co-precipitates with barium forming complex compounds of sulfates, carbonates and silicates. These compounds are the main constituents of scale and sludge. The objective of this work was to relate the radium content of scales and sludge to their chemical and mineralogical composition. Samples were taken from a PETROBRAS Unit in the State of Sergipe, in Northeast Brazil. They were collected either from the inner surface of water pipes or from containers in the waste storage area of the Unit. Oil was separated from the solid material in a Soxhlet extractor equipment by using aguarras as solvent. The concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra were determined by gamma spectrometry. Both the mineralogical and chemical composition of samples were determined by X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence, respectively, and used to characterize samples as scales or sludge. The results showed that scales are mainly formed by BaSO4 and CaCO3 while sludge composition is quite variable, having higher contents of SiO2 and FeO3 than those observed on scale samples. The measured activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra are strongly correlated for both kinds of samples.
© EDP Sciences, 2005
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