Open Access

Table 1

Examples of practical activities related to PU of radiation risk implemented in Fukushima.

Category *-ID Name Organizers/participants Beneficiaries Purpose Main activities Key features Period Ref.
CBA-1 Radiation measurements in Suetsugi Community, Iwaki Local residents and experts Local residents To understand the possibilities of resuming agricultural activities in the community Measuring ambient dose rates and radiocesium concentrations in soil and food in order to understand the local radiological situation; also, the whole-body measurement of residents. Co-expertise process, leadership presence 2011– Lochard et al., 2020; Endo, 2016; Schneider et al., 2019; Ando, 2015
CBA-2 Radiation measurement in Okubo-Yosouchi community, Iitate village Local residents and experts Local residents To assess the status of radiation and revitalize communities and agriculture Measuring ambient dose rates and radiocesium concentrations in soil to understand the local radiological situation Co-expertise process, leadership presence 2013–2016 Moritomo, 2016; Ishii et al., 2017
CBA-3 The Iwaki Oceanographic Research Team Umi-Labo Local residents and experts Local residents To understand the current situation of the Iwaki sea Catching and cooking fish, and measuring radiocesium in fish to understand the marine radiological situation offshore of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Accident Site Citizen-led activity, learning by doing 2013– Komatsu, 2018; Igarashi, 2018
CBA-4 Radiation measurements and interactive learning program, “Yamakiya School” Local residents and experts Local residents To strengthen the local community, to deal with the lack of local resources, and to encourage local agriculture Measuring ambient dose rates and radiocesium concentrations in local food and experiential learning Co-expertise process, learning by doing, leadership presence 2017– Yasutaka et al., 2020
CBA-5 “Resurrection of Fukushima” NPO, managed by volunteers and farmers, experts Villagers of Iitate To rebuild lives and reconstruct agricultural-centered industries on Iitate village Measuring radiation and analyzing radioactivity; developing decontamination technologies, pilot projects for the revitalization of agriculture, pilot projects for the creation of new industries; care for the victims e.g., health care for the residents, disclosure of the information gathered in the area to the rest of the world Co-expertise process 2011– Kanno et al., 2014
CBA-6 “D-Shuttle” Project by Fukushima High School High school students Local students, academic community To understand the current situation in Fukushima and tell the world about Fukushima Led by high-school students, measuring individual external doses by D-shuttle inside and outside Fukushima Student-led activity 2014–2016 Hara et al., 2015; Adachi et al., 2015
CBA-7 “Roundtable meeting for Kashiwan Products for the Kashiwan People” Local farmers and consumers, experts Local farmers and consumers To build trust to sell and consume local agricultural products Measuring local agricultural products by local stakeholders, deciding “measurement methods” and “standards” by themselves Public engagement, leadership presence 2011–2012 Igarashi, 2012
RDA-1 Collaborative pragmatic research led by researchers Academic researchers with help of local people Scientific community and authorities To obtain empirical evidence in order to understand realistic radiological conditions of the affected areas Measuring radiation levels in the affected areas in Fukushima with help of local residents and local authorities Community-based research, public engagement, building trust 2011– Naito et al., 2016, 2017; Yoshida-Ohuchi et al., 2016, 2020
RDA-2 Initiatives driven by academic institutions (e.g., Nagasaki University) Universities Local community and scientific community To provide scientific support for the residents’ return to the former evacuation areas and for reconstruction Measuring radiation levels in local environments and conducting individual consulting on radiation exposure and health by a public health nurse who stayed in the area for a long period Co-expertise process 2011– Takamura et al., 2018
DM-1 ICRP/Fukushima Dialogue ICRP, local volunteers, NPO “Fukushima Dialogue” Local residents, general public, international radiation protection experts To help recovery after the Fukushima Daiichi accident by giving local people a forum to share experiences, and an opportunity to work together with experts from Japan and beyond Conducting dialogue meetings, site visits for participants, and ICRP to understand the challenges faced by local residents, to learn from this experience, and to reflect it in revised ICRP recommendations for recovery after major nuclear accidents Authority-led risk communication 2011– Ando, 2016; Lochard et al., 2019
DM-2 “Yorozu” health consultation project FMU Iitate villagers To reduce anxiety about radiation and health Medical professionals, including volunteers, go to each municipality to provide one-on-one health consultations for residents. The consultation is not limited to radiation Application of proven dialogue methodology (IDPA methodology) 2011– Murakami et al., 2017
CSA-1 Safe Cast NPO, international volunteers General Public To create useful, accessible, and granular environmental data (e.g., environmental radiation) Measuring radiation and posting the data online Citizen science 2011– Brown et al., 2016
CSA-2 Minna-no (everyone’s) Data Site (Collective Database of Citizens’ Radioactivity Measuring Labs) NPO, local laboratories General public To integrate all of the radioactivity measurement data into a common platform and disseminate them to the public Collecting and publicizing radioactivity measurement data from the participating measurement laboratories, to improve the knowledge and measuring techniques of the participating measurement laboratories, to carry out our own analysis and survey research based on the collected data, to publish opinions based on the results of our survey research with the aim of influencing countermeasures and resolving problems related to radioactive contamination Citizen science 2013– Citizens’ Radiation Data Map of Japan Project Team, 2018
ICSA-1 “Questions and Answers about Radiation in Daily Life” Japanese Health Physics Society General public To provide the right information on radiation to concerned citizens Answering radiation-related questions from the public and publicizing Q&As on the website Academic society-led activity, easy-to-understand format, Q&A format 2011–2012 Ogino, 2012; Kono et al., 2020
ICSA-2 “Radiation Quartet” National Institute of Public Health General public To understand radiation while playing cards Developing educational tool Innovative approach, educational tool 2014 Horiguchi, 2013
ICSA-3 “Nasubi no Gimon” (“Nasubi Asks Questions”) MOE General public To share correct information that eliminates misconceptions about situations in Fukushima Nasubi, a Japanese comedian from Fukushima Prefecture, asked experts various questions regarding radiological conditions in Fukushima and publicized easy-to-understand messages in cartoons A comic book, website and movies 2014– MOE, 2014
ICSA-4 “Kawaraban Michishirube”
A public relations magazine about radiation and health for Intate villagers
Iitate village and academic institutions Villagers To provide information about radiation and health, mainly for evacuated villagers Writing articles and publicizing them in public relations magazine “Kawaraban Michishirube” Stakeholder involvement, easy-to-read public relations magazine, contextualization and localization 2012–2016 Iitate village, 2012
ICSA-5 “Information Booklet for Returnees” Experts, MOE Local experts A communication tool between local experts and residents, to help local experts build trust with local people by providing them with needed information NA Contextualization and localization, collaboration with local people through local experts, co-expertise process 2017–2018 Kuroda, 2020
ISCA-6 Dr. Tsubokura’s radiation classroom Local newspaper Local public To provide information on radiation A local doctor writes a series of columns in the local newspaper focusing on the topic of radiation. Information dissemination by local newspaper, short columns and familiar topics 2015– Fukushima Minyu, 2015
ISCA-7 Active E-learning of ICRP111 on Twitter Twitter users Twitter users To gain information and lessons from ICRP Publication 111. A Fukushima-based Twitter user played the role of a teacher and explained ICRP111 on twitter in a series of posts. Friend users, including is a radiation expert, asked questions as “students” and discussed it. The activity was later published as an e-book Effective use of SNS, virtual communication 2012 @J_Tphoto and @buvery, 2012
ISCA-8 Communications on decontamination of Date City Date City officers Local residents To gain an understanding and consensus among the residents for decontamination works and to determine temporary storage sites Using plastic beads to visualize invisible radiocesium in the environment and the effect of decontamination on reducing radiation exposure Leadership presence, innovative communication 2011– Date City, 2014

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