Open Access

Table 1

Overview of case studies on stakeholder engagement practices.

Country Description case study and methods
Belgium A study of the revised Belgian nuclear and radiological emergency plan, focusing both on how stakeholders were engaged in the development of the plan, and how different prescriptions for stakeholder engagement defined in the plan have been put into practice. This was done through document analysis, in-depth interviews with members of civil society organizations, local and federal authorities, and a focus group with radiation protection experts and professionals.
Belgium Mapping different forms of stakeholder engagement in Belgian EPR & R, focusing both on dominant and deviant cases, using both exhaustive sampling of stakeholder engagement in Belgian EPR & R for the past 10 years through an internet search engine (Google), and deviant sampling focusing on remarkable or unique cases. This case study was aimed at gaining a contextualised view on participation comprising both institutional and non-institutional processes and actors, focusing on what may de facto count as engagement, but is not necessarily labelled that way.
France An analysis of stakeholder involvement experiences from the Steering committee for the management of the post-accident phase of a nuclear accident or a radiological emergency (CODIRPA) of the French Safety Authority (ASN) (for more information on CODIRPA, see Based on first-hand experience with the Steering committee complemented by interviews with an ASN representative and a NGO representative.
Slovak Republic An analysis of drills and exercises at different levels related to scenarios on potential nuclear accidents at Slovak NPPs. Particularly focused on INEX4, INEX5 and National exercises performed in Slovakia
Slovenia A study of whether and how regulations regarding EPR & R information and communication encountered in the BSS directive have been put into practice at different levels (national, regional, local) in Slovenia. The study is based on document analysis of legal requirements and public information, and interviews with representatives of national authorities (nuclear regulator and civil protection) and a local community close to an NPP.
Spain A study on the role of research institutions and radiation protection societies or associations in bringing together different stakeholders and facilitating their collaboration on emergency management. Specific attention is directed to CIEMAT, ISGlobal and SERP (Spanish Radiation protection Society).

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