Practical advice for mass media communication.
|Challenge||Practical advice for mass media communication|
|Coordination of public information||Only limited coordination of public information can be achieved in the early stages of a nuclear accident: be prepared.|
|Information source dispersion needs to be taken into consideration in nuclear emergency planning at all levels.|
|Communicators have to respond to requests for information not only related to emergency but simultaneously also other non-emergency topics (such as energy shortage and supply, nuclear technologies, nuclear waste).|
|Balanced and socio-technical communication||Personalized information will have a greater chance of being published in the media than objective, technical information.|
|Present complete information: media need two sided information (risks-benefits, pro-contra…)|
|Media attention||The newsworthiness of public information (publish-ability) will change through time.|
|The nuclear −emergency information is the most newsworthy for the media at the beginning of the accident. At a later stage, media re-orientate the attention to other topics.|
|Recovery and evaluation is more newsworthy in countries without nuclear energy installations than in countries with NPP.|
|Communicate about water consumption issues, followed by farming products already during an early event although not contaminated. Food predicts and food chain are of great media interest..|
|Public communication is one of the most followed aspects of a nuclear emergency management.|
|Evacuation has to be communicated intensively not only to evacuees but also to a global public worldwide. Media are interested in evacuation since it can be presented as an event.|
|Long-duration sheltering of the population, measurement of people's contamination, especially of iodine in thyroid of children, and the use of iodine tablets as a prophylactic measure, are also topics in a media interest.|
|Communicating radioactivity||Use comparisons with different exposures to radiation and not only the measurement units itself.|
|Where possible, put units into context with legal limits, these provide journalists with a benchmark to frame their story with.|
|Be consistent with units (e.g., mSv or roentgen) and understand that numeracy related to risk and safety is meaningful only to a limited number of journalists and people.|
|Be very clear about the reference points used for comparison of the doses and exposure, one can't expect journalists to know which limits doses were compared to.|
|Do not communicate exposure rates only; include an explanation of the possible health risks associates with exposures.|
|Develop and make available visual material in advance; this should cover an explanation of radiation doses and effects, and in perspective of other exposures and risks.|
|When appropriate, compare radiological risks of of the present accident with radiological risks of previous nuclear accidents. Take specifics of the country where you communicate in to account.|
|Communicating country specifics||Each country has its own communication and interest specifics during an emergency. Communicators have to be aware of them.|
|Communicate contextual information such as evacuation plans, stress tests results, similar NPP, basic knowledge (e.g., difference between contamination and irradiation) not only radiological risks.|
|Know your public: attitudes, risk perceptions, historical memory and address these characteristics in your communication.|
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